The Spoon-billed Sandpiper (Calidris pygmaea) is a long distance migrant, breeding in Russia and annually migrates more than 8,000 km to winter in South and South-east Asia, with approximately half of the global population understood to winter in Myanmar. This species is classified as globally Critically Endangered on the Red List of Endangered Species by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. That is the highest category of extinction threat for any species still present in the wild. The current rate of population decline could lead to its extinction within a decade. The main threats to the Spoon-billed Sandpiper were identified as taking placing on the non-breeding grounds. In Myanmar the following four main threats were identified; hunting (the most severe and urgent threat), lack of formal protection of coastal sites, loss of habitat through unsustainable coastal development and mangrove forest restoration, and inadvertent by-catch from fishing. Actions to protect this species in Myanmar have been on-going since 2010, particularly by identifying hunters through socio-economic surveys and providing them support for alternative livelihoods, raising awareness of the Spoon-billed Sandpiper, establishing local conservation groups and in 2013 demarcating the boundary of a proposed Ramsar site in the Gulf of Mottama.